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1917 Bolshevik Revolution throws Church of Russia into chaos, effectively stranding the fledgling Russian Orthodox mission in America; restoration of Moscow Patriarchate with Tikhon as patriarch; Church of Georgia's autocephaly restored de facto by political chaos in Russia.

1917 Persecution of the Orthodox Church in Russia begins, with 130,000 priests arrested, 95,000 of whom were executed by firing squad.

1918 Tsar Nicholas II of Russia murdered together with his wife Alexandra and children.

1919 The Holy Synod of the church of Greece, presided over by MetropolitanCermanos of Demetrias, locum tenens of the Archdiocese of Athens, again condemnsthe new calendar. This Synod also declares its support for the monarchy and its refusalto recognize the revolutionary govemment of Eleftherios Venizelos.

1919-1922 Greco-Turkish War; a million refugees flee to Greece joining half a million Greeks who had fled earlier; Pontic Greek Genocide eliminates the Christian population of Trebizond.

1920 Death of Nektarios of Aegina.

1920 Publication of Encyclical Letters by Constantinople on Christian unity and on the Ecumenical Movement.

1921 On December 29, the Holy Synod of the Church of Greece, presided over by Metropolitan Germanos of Demetrias, deposes Meletios Metaxakis for a series of infractions against canon law and for causing a schism. Metropolitan Germanos of Demetrias resumes his position as locum tenens of the Archdiocesan throne.

1922 Church of Albania declares autocephaly from Constantinople.

1922 Formation of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia.  

1922 The predominatly Christian city of Smyrna is destroyed, ending 1900 years of Christian civilization.

1923 Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia granted autonomy by Church of Constantinople; Treaty of Lausanne affirmed the international status of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, with Turkey guaranteeing respect and the Patriarchate’s full protection.

1923 Pan-Orthodox Congress, presided by Freemason Patriarch, Meletios Metaxakis.

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